This course will provide the basics of carbonate reservoir description for the less experienced staff (covered in 2 days), followed by 3 days of more advanced material. The subsequent 3 days will address the road map (workflow) used in data preparation and data analysis to build a coherent 3D static model of the reservoir.
Course Level: Skill
Designed for you, if you are...
A geologist, petrophysicist, geophysicist or reservoir engineer
The course assumes some basic geoscience and engineering knowledge. No prior hands-on experience of 3D modelling techniques used to interpret the data sets presented in this course is required.
How we build your confidence
In the first 2 days the instructor provides the basic geological, petrophysical and core analysis background for reservoir characterisation and in the following days you will perform exercises on real field data, in order to prepare the data input for a static model. On the last day, examples of 3D models (deterministic and stochastic) will be presented and discussed.
The benefits from attending
At the end of the course, you will have the background knowledge to understand the role of reservoir description in 3D modelling, you can confidently evaluate the quality of the models, compute the probabilistic distribution of hydrocarbons in place (P90, P50 and P10), and understand the upscaling process, a requirement for the flow simulation studies. In particular you will understand how to:
Integrate static and dynamic data in a coherent and consistent manner
Use geological and petrophysical information to understand the depositional environments and the diagenetic processes that affect the rock fabric
Characterise the reservoir rock types using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and SCAL data
Build a geological framework with a zonation scheme that honours the flow units
Integrate seismic data and faults in the reservoir framework
Use deterministic and stochastic algorithms to propagate petrophysical properties in three-dimensions and to generate equi-probable realisations
Build a saturation model honouring capillary pressures by reservoir rock types and fluid contacts
Rank realisations and perform averaging and upscaling of properties
Perform volumetric calculations and quantify the uncertainties. Produce P90, P50 and P10 models ready for flow simulation studies
Geoscience aspects: Review of sedimentology, diagenesis, pore systems, and sequence stratigraphy
Petrophysical & seismic aspects: Review of petrophysical and seismic inputs required to reservoir description
Rock Fabric: Review of carbonate textures, pore systems, pore throat sizes in line with diagenetic processes
Lab Data: Detail explanation of MICP and its use in rock fabric characterisation. Review of SCAL, NMR, R35 to qualify the different rock fabrics
Rock-fluid interaction: Review wettability, Kr curves, OWC-FWL differences and sensitivity analysis on saturation-height modelling (Leverett J function, Skelt-Harrison)
Flow units: Review of zonation, layering, flow unit concepts, k/phi, FZI, Lorenz plots and the use of flowmeters for validation. The concept of fracture corridors and fracture modelling
Geostatistics: Univariate and bivariate statistics, PDFs, CDFs, Cv and spatial statistics. Evaluate variogram models (Spherical, Exponential, Gaussian) and the effect of their parameters (range and nugget) on model results
3D modelling: Comparison of estimation and simulation approaches handling discrete and continuous data; inverse distance, kriging, collocated co-kriging, sGs, SIS and co-simulation techniques
Monte Carlo simulation with computation of P90, P50 and P10 values