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Integrated Petrophysics - Saturation Height: How to Derive and Use Saturation Height Functions (PPH38)

    Description

    This course explains how to derive and use saturation height functions in your daily petrophysical work and incorporate them seamlessly into your default evaluations. All aspects of saturation height are covered in detail including how to avoid common mistakes, correct and fit the lab results and apply the saturation function with logs. Mercury, air-brine, oil-brine, porous plate and centrifuge experiments are compared and contrasted with recommendations on how to achieve optimal results. Reservoir Types and Rock Types, including complex carbonate pore systems, are covered along with the proper selection of plug samples, lab corrections and the various data fitting techniques.

    All the commonly used fit equations are described from the simple FOIL (BVW) to the author’s modified J as well as the Winland R35 and Thomeer methods. Critical (Solver) fitting techniques and check plots are shown to ensure precise functions. A long and detailed, step-by-step practical from the lab and reservoir’s raw data, through to reservoir saturations and HPV is an important focus of this course and provides a re-usable evaluation template. The quick-look micro-practicals also include an example of the very simple but useful FOIL function. Following derivation of the SCAL function the practical goes on to fully integrate all routine core analysis plugs and logged resistivity via the Archie or Waxman Smits equations - a unique feature of this course consistent with modern, real-world petrophysical integration. The process creates a robust and fully integrated [SCAL – RCA – Log driven] petrophysical model for use in both petrophysics and geomodels by any member of the reservoir team. This model can be quickly re-run from logs for “what if?” scenarios by any team member. Integrating the Swht model through to logs in this way, so it can be re-run identically by anyone in geology, petrophysics or reservoir engineering, provides a powerful and transparent quality control which tends to focus and harmonise team thinking throughout the exploration to development process.

    Time is spent on understanding and addressing carbonate complex pore system saturation-height issues, including vugs, fractures and wettability.

    A similar process is then outlined but this time deriving the [Por-k-Sw-height] relationship from resistivity and NMR logs - a method employed where the petrophysicist believes logs reveal the true reservoir Sw more properly than the available core (some N.Sea fields).

    Core-Log integration has been the central topic of the author’s Imperial College Ph.D. and over 30 years of consulting, reading and lecturing on core-log integration. It is also the central purpose of the PetroDB software which expands essential core-log integration to SCAL and modern logs.

    Course Level: Skill
    Duration: 3 days
    Instructor: Mark Deakin

    Designed for you, if you are...

    • A petrophysicist, reservoir engineer, core analyst, geologist, geo-modeler or engineer who builds or uses static or dynamic reservoir models
    • A professional with a year’s experience in core-log integration

    How we build your confidence

    This course explains the industry wide saturation-height method and shows how to integrate all routine core analysis plugs and logs with special core analysis

    The benefits from attending

    Topics

    Day 1
    • Intro and Lab
    • Why Saturation Height? Sw = f.(por, k, ht)
    • Reservoir Pc and its effect on Saturation - what we model in the lab
    • What are Reservoir Rock Types (RRTs) and why they are important for Swht
    • Clastic vs Carbonate RRTs
    • Rocktyping: after RCA before SCAL
    • What is Capillary Pressure?
    • Laboratory Pc
    • Micro-practical. Quick Look Swht
    • Capillary Pressure Lab apparatus
    • Is your lab setup a genuine analogy with your initial conditions reservoir?
    • Lab Problems: are plugs representative? Temperature, pressure &
      salinity. Altered wettability. Lab vs Reservoir Pc range
    • Lab Vetting Samples. Vetting lab results
    • Lab Corrections
    • Practical - corrections and impact

    Day 2
    • Daily Recap
    • Which? Mercury Injection, Air-Brine, Oil-Brine
    • Does porosity, permeability, facies or all three drive reservoir Swht? PTSD – throats
    • Petrophysicist: Always plot Swht with Swlogs
    • Lab Swht Interpretation
    • Capillary Pressure Fit equations - Fit each plug or fit all?
    • FOIL function BVW; J Function; Lambda (Shell); Skelt Harrison; Modified J (Deakin)
    • Micropractical - FOIL function example
    • Lab to Reservoir Conversion equation
    • Rocktyping iteration
    • Cap press fit equation errors < Application errors: Facies, k, FWL, Ølog = Øcore; klog = kcore
    • How to use all RCA in Swht not just SCAL (typical ResEng method)

    Day 3
    • Daily Recap
    • Check your assumptions. Are they valid?
    • FWL? Permeability? Vuggy carbonates: Are plugs representative? Fractures? Are uncored RRTs, valid? Wettability?
    • Practical - How to Use Capillary Pressure Data
    • Generic Swht equations
    • How to use Swht to calibrate your Archie/Waxman Smits Saturation Exponent n value
    • Petrophysicist: Swht or Swlogs? Which, When and Why
    • Log based Saturation Height
    • Log Based Swht with Resistivity
    • Log Based Swht without Resistivity
    • When to use Core, When to use Logs
    • Example: Implementation in Interactive Petrophysics
    • Wrap up: Do This, Don’t Do That!


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